Marygrace

The Philippine Republic

On July 4, 1946, Manuel Roxas of the Nationalista Party was inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of the Philippines. Roxas died in April 1948. He was succeeded by Elpidio Quirino. Both Roxas & Quirino had to deal with the Hukbalahap, a large anti-Japanese guerrilla organization which became a militant group that discredited the ruling elite. The group was eventually put down by Pres. Quirino’s Secretary of Defense, Ramon Magsaysay.
 
Magsaysay defeated Quirino in the 1953 elections. He was a popular president and largely loved by the people. Magsaysay died in an airplane crash on March 17, 1957 and was succeeded by Carlos Garcia.
Diosdado Macapagal won the 1961 presidential elections and soon after he changed history by declaring June 12 as independence day – the day Emilio Aguinaldo declared independence in Cavite from Spain in 1898. Aguinaldo was the guest of honour during the fist Independence Day celebrations in 1962.

2 thoughts on “Marygrace

  1. Philippine History During the Spanish

    In 1521, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer who was serving the Spanish crown, landed in Samar Island on his voyage to circumvent the globe. He explored the islands and named it Archipelago of San Lazaro. Magellan was killed during a rebellion led by a Datu named Lapu Lapu in Mactan Island (adjacent to Cebu Island). Spain continued to send expeditions to the island for financial gain and on the fourth expedition, Commander Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, named the islands: Philippines, after Prince Philip (later King Philip II), heir to the Spanish throne. Spain ruled the Philippines for 356 years.
     
    In 1565, King Philip II appointed Miguel Lopez de Legazpi as the first Governor-General of the Philippines. Legazpi chose Manila to be it’s capital because of it’s natural harbor. Spain’s legacy was the conversion of the people to Catholicism and the creation of the privileged landed class. Because of abuses and suppression of the Spaniards, a Propaganda Movement emerged with the aims for equality between Filipinos and Spaniards. The arrest of propagandist Dr. Jose Rizal and execution in 1896 gave fresh momentum to Filipino rebels to fight against Spain.
     
    The secret society of the Katipunan, founded by Andres Bonifacio attacked the Spanish Garrison in San Juan with little success, while Katipuneros in Cavite Province headed by Emilio Aguinaldo defeated the Guardia Civil in Cavite. Aguinaldo’s victories lead him to be elected as head of the Katipunan. The factions of Bonifacio & Aguinaldo fought and lead to the trial and execution of Bonifacio on Aguinaldo’s orders. Aguinaldo later drafted a constitution and established the Republic of Biak-na-Bato in Bulacan province. In 1897, an impasse between the Spanish government and Aguinaldo arose. After negotiations between the two sides, Aguinaldo accepted an amnesty from the Spaniards and US$ 800,000.00 in exchange for his exile to Hong Kong with his government.

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